CyberKeeda In Social Media
Showing posts with label Python Functions. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Python Functions. Show all posts

How to use, Python's DateTime Module


Python's Date Time Module:
    Python's datetime module ships with default python package which you can't skip for sure sooner or later you will come to know about it.
This module will help you to verify multiple checks and algorithms based upon date time filter.

I will keep on updating the post as per my learnings and used in practical scenarios.
Let's go through it :)

Basic Usage of date time
  • Import module and display current date.

# Import datetime function from datetime library
from datetime import datetime
datetime.datetime(2021, 6, 7, 2, 43, 32, 276412)

# Create object and store value##
  dt =
# Display date, time without Formatting


datetime.datetime(2021, 6, 7, 2, 43, 32, 276412)

Filter datetime output as per our requirement.
  • Filter date

# dt =
# show_date =

# print (show_date)

Output:, 6, 7)

Filter only Day

# dt =
# show_day =

# print (show_day)



  • Filter Month

# dt =
# show_month = dt.month

# print (show_month)



Use datetime strftime to format date/time as per our need

    Below are some identifier to use while formatting.
    • %a  : Day of week (Short )
      • Mon, Tue, Wed, ... Sat, Sun
    • %A : Day of week (Full )
      • Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday .. Saturday, Sunday
    • %m : Month  ( Two digit number )
      • 01,02,03,04 .... 10,11,12
    • %y : Year ( Short, Two digit number )
      • 19,20,21
    • %Y : Year ( Full)
      • 2019,2020,2021
    • %d : Date ( Two digit number )
      • 01,02,03,04, 22,23,30,31

    Use Strftime as per our need.
    • With or Without Variables

    # dt =
    # show_val1 = dt.strftime('%m%d%y')
    # show_val2 = dt.strftime('%m%d%Y')
    # show_val3 = dt.strftime('%Y%m%d')
    # show_val4 = dt.strftime('%a %m %y')
    # show_val5 = dt.strftime('%A-%m-%Y')
    # show_val6 = dt.strftime('%I %p %S')
    # show_val7 = dt.strftime('%-j')
    # show_val8 = dt.strftime('myprefix-%m%d%y-mysuffix')

    # print (show_val1)
    # print (show_val2)
    # print (show_val3)
    # print (show_val4)
    # print (show_val5)
    # print (show_val6)
    # print (show_val7)


    Mon 06 21
    02 AM 32

    There is lot of content with respect to datetime module, will keep this post updated ;)
    Read more ...

    Python - Send HTML Table as email body.


    A python base package to send emails.

    Within this post, we will cover.

    • How to use prettytable library to create tabular data in console.
    • How to convert prettytable tabular data output in HTML format
    • How we can send HTML email using Python.
    • How can we integrate mime with email.
    • Code snippet to send HTML email along with Texr
    • How to send email as MultiPart message content ( Text + HTML) 

    We will start with the use case:

    • I have a html table and and a Link that must be within the same email body and not as an attachment.
    • So for now, i am using PreetyTable to provide output of my table in HTML format.


    Intended Table.


    How to create Tabular data in CLI using prettytable.
    from prettytable import PrettyTable
    tabular_fields = ["Firstname", "Lastname", "Age"]
    tabular_table = PrettyTable()
    tabular_table.field_names = tabular_fields 
    tabular_table.add_row(["Jill","Smith", 50])
    tabular_table.add_row(["Eve","Jackson", 94])
    tabular_table.add_row(["John", "Doe", 80])
    >>> print(tabular_table)
    | Firstname | Lastname | Age |
    |    Jill   |  Smith   |  50 |
    |    Eve    | Jackson  |  94 |
    |    John   |   Doe    |  80 |

    To print the data as an HTML output use the below code snippet
    from prettytable import PrettyTable
    tabular_fields = ["Firstname", "Lastname", "Age"]
    tabular_table = PrettyTable()
    tabular_table.field_names = tabular_fields 
    tabular_table.add_row(["Jill","Smith", 50])
    tabular_table.add_row(["Eve","Jackson", 94])
    tabular_table.add_row(["John", "Doe", 80])
    >>> print(tabular_table.get_html_string())

    Now as we already know how to create html output for a specific table using prettytable, we will use the same html output within our email body.

    • Here is the code.

    import smtplib
    from email.mime.multipart import MIMEMultipart
    from email.mime.text import MIMEText
    def trigger_email():
        my_message = tabular_table.get_html_string()
        text = "Hi!\nHow are you?\nHere is the link you wanted:\n"
        html = """\
                table, th, td {
                    border: 1px solid black;
                    border-collapse: collapse;
                th, td {
                    padding: 5px;
                    text-align: left;    
        <p>Customer Inventory!<br>
           Here are the details?<br>
           Link to register. <a href="">link</a> you wanted.<br>
        """ % (my_message)
        part1 = MIMEText(text, 'plain')
        part2 = MIMEText(html, 'html')
        sendFrom = 'Purchase Update <>'
        sendTo = ''
        # Create the root message and fill in the from, to, and subject headers
        msg = MIMEMultipart('alternative')
        msg['Subject'] = 'Purchase details Status'
        msg['From'] = strFrom
        msg['To'] = strTo
        smtp = smtplib.SMTP('')
        smtp.sendmail(strFrom, strTo, msg.as_string())
    So modify the above with your requirement.

    Read more ...

    Python : Selenium and Chromedriver to take webpage screenshot and send it via email.

    Browser Automation using Python

    Within this post, we will cover.

    • Use of selenium and chromedriver to take screenshot of most recent webpage status.
    • Will leverage the basic preinstalled libraries to send email.
    • Will know, how we can send an image as a part of email body not as an attachment.
    • Will use the headless mode option of chromdriver, that's is the entire operation will run in background no GUI chrome events will be observed.

    We will start with the use case:

    • if you have a requirement to check the current status of a webpage multiple times within a day/hour.
    • If you have multiple of webpages to look into periodically without opening any of it, check status of directly from your inbox only.
    We will use a python script here and perform the below operations sequentially.
    1. Take screenshot of webpage using Python selenium library and google chrome webdriver and save it in our folder by name screenshot.png
    2. Use Python base library email and use it's multipart function to draft image as an email body.
    3. Use Python base library to send email using SMTP server.
    • Download mandatory requirements.
      • Install selenium library from PIP
    C:\Users\cyberkeeda> pip install selenium
    First confirm which chrome browser you have on your system, for this open Chrome Browser --> Click on 3 dots at the top right corner of chrome --> Help
    --> About Chrome Chrome --> You will get google chrome version.
    • Create an new directory and place your above chrome webdriver into it.
    • Note your organizations SMTP server URL/IP.
    • Create a new Python file and paste the below script lines within it.
    • Paste and save your python script and replace the below lines with yours.
      • driverPath  : Replace it with the path you have kept your downloaded chromedriver 
      • chrome_options.add_argument('window-size=1920,1080')  : Replace it with resolution what you want for the screenshot.
        • 720p = 1280 x 720 - is usually known as HD or "HD Ready" resolution
        • 1080p = 1920 x 1080 - is usually known as FHD or "Full HD" resolution
        • 1440p = 2560 x 1440 - is commonly known as QHD or Quad HD resolution
      • driver.get(''): Replace it your URL.
      • sendFrom : Replace it your sender's email address.
      • sentTo: Replace it your recipient email address. ( You can use same email for sendFrom and sendTo)
      • smtp = smtplib.SMTP('') : Replace it your own smtp server or IP.

    import smtplib
    from email.mime.text import MIMEText
    from email.mime.image import MIMEImage
    from email.mime.multipart import MIMEMultipart
    from import Options
    from selenium import webdriver
    from time import sleep

    def grab_screenshot():

        # Path for your downloaded chromedriver.
        driverPath = '\\Users\\cyberkeeda\\BrowserAutomation\\chromedriver'

        # To activate GUI Mode Uncomment te below two lines
        # And comment the below four lines staring from chrome_options to driver

        #driver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path=driverPath)
        #driver = webdriver.Chrome(driverPath)
        chrome_options = Options()
        driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=chrome_options, executable_path=driverPath)


    def emailScreenShot():


        html_string = """ 
                        '<b>Covid-19 Cases </b> <br> 
                        Do and Don't Link : <br>
                        <img src="cid:image1"><br>Regards <br> Automation

        sendFrom = 'Covid Update <>'
        sendTo = ''
        # Create the root message and fill in the from, to, and subject headers
        msgRoot = MIMEMultipart('related')
        msgRoot['Subject'] = 'Covid-19 Cases Status'
        msgRoot['From'] = strFrom
        msgRoot['To'] = strTo

        # Encapsulate the plain and HTML versions of the message body in an
        # 'alternative' part, so message agents can decide which they want to display.
        msgAlternative = MIMEMultipart('alternative')

        msgText = MIMEText('This is the alternative plain text message.')

        # We reference the image in the IMG SRC attribute by the ID we give it below
        msgText = MIMEText(html_string, 'html')

        # This example assumes the image is in the current directory
        fp = open('screenshot.png''rb')
        msgImage = MIMEImage(

        # Define the image's ID as referenced above

        # Send the email (this example assumes SMTP authentication is required)
            smtp = smtplib.SMTP('')
            smtp.sendmail(sendFrom, sendTo, msgRoot.as_string())
            print("SMTP Error")


    Hope this blog post helps you to meet your requirement, in case of any support using above script do comment.

    Read more ...

    Python : How to extract desired cell values from a table created by module PrettyTable


    It is simple Python library designed to make it quick and easy to represent tabular data in visually appealing ASCII tables. It was inspired by the ASCII tables used in the PostgreSQL shell psql. PrettyTable allows for selection of which columns are to be printed, independent alignment of columns (left or right justified or centred) and printing of “sub-tables” by specifying a row range.

    Official Document : Link

    There could be many uses cases while using it, here in this blog post we will cover how we can extract our desired cell values from preetyTable.

    So we will start by 
    • Importing module
    • Creating object
    • Add Feilds
    • Add Data
    from prettytable import PrettyTable           # importing module

    tabular_table = PrettyTable()                 # creating object
    tabular_fields = ["Name""Age""Gender"]    # Define Field List

    tabular_table.field_names = tabular_fields    # Add Fields to table

    tabular_table.add_row(["Tokyo""33""M"])   # Add Data


    |  Name  | Age | Gender |
    | Tokyo  |  33 |   M    |
    | Narobi |  74 |   M    |
    | Denver |  21 |   F    |

    Use Case 1.

    • Extract cell values for a specific field only from prettyTable
    Below For loop will help to do so.

    for row in tabular_table:
         print (row.get_string(fields=["Name"]))

    |  Name |
    | Tokyo |
    |  Name  |
    | Narobi |
    |  Name  |
    | Denver |

    Use Case 2.

    • Extract cell values without header or border from prettyTable

    for row in tabular_table:
         row.border = False
         row.header = False
         print (row.get_string(fields=["Name"]).strip())

    Read more ...

    Python : Print() examples with parameters


    Nothing more is required to explain what does the print function does, it's name is itself self explanatory.
    Print function is used to display /print messages into the screen.

    Within python we can use ether pair of single inverted commas '  ' or double inverted "  "  within single brackets (  )  both gives the same result.

    >>> print  ('Hello World')

    Hello World

    Print() with Parameters.

    I'm adding some of the print function usage along with various parameters.

    Print() with Sep

    SEP commonly a short form of separator,  Separator between the arguments to print() function in Python is space by default (softspace feature) , which can be modified and can be made to any character, integer or string as per our choice.

    Default behaviour of python with softspace.

    >>> print('A','B','C')
    A B C

    #Trick to disable softspace using sep parameter
    >>> print('A','B','C',sep='')

    One more example.

    >>> print('13','11','2018')
    13 11 2018

    #Trick to format a date
    >>> print('13','11','2018', sep='-')

    Print() with End

    End parameter along with print can be used to align data into a same single line along with required character,symbol or word.

    >>> print('Welcome')
    >>> print('to')
    >>> print('')

    Now, with help of end parameter, we can allign all these three different lines by one, along with extra characters too

    >>> print('Welcome', end '  ')
    >>> print('to', end '  ')
    >>> print('', end ' ! ')
    Welcome to !

    One more example ( SEP with END )
    >>> print(10,20,30,sep=':', end='...')
    >>> print(60,70,80,sep='-')


    Print Formatted strings and Variables on the same line.

    Before knowing anything, please note the below abbreviations.

    %i==>  int
    %d==> int
    %f==>  float
    %s==>  str

    print("formatted String" %(variable list))


    >>> print("value is :%d" %(12))
    value is  : 12

    >>> print("My name is :%s and age is :%d" %('Cyberkeeda',23))
    My name is : Cberkeeda and age is  : 23

    Read more ...
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